Fool's Mate and Scholar's Mate
Fool's Mate and Scholar's Mate are often tried on newcomers to the game.
Fool's Mate occurs when a player opens up his King to a fatal attack as shown in the following game:
1.f3 e5 2.g4 Qh4#
It is rarely a good idea to move the pawns on f2, g2 and h2 so early in the game as the King normally castles on this side and if the pawns have been moved, they can no longer offer him adequate protection.
The following game illustrates Scholar's Mate. This is a checkmate whereby the Bishop and Queen attack the weak f7 pawn. This pawn is weak because, in the starting position, it is only protected by the King.
1.e4 e5 2.Bc4 Bc5 3.Qh5 Nf6 4.Qxf7#
Scholar's Mate is the most common trap a beginner falls into. The following game is a game Mikhail Tal played when he was 9 years old against his brother and shows that even potential Grandmasters are capable of succumbing to this trap.
Mikhail Tal's Brother - Mikhail Tal
1.e4 e5 2.Bc4 Bc5 3.Qh5 Na6 4.Qxf7#